Arsenic and the human genome: susceptibility and response to exposure
November 8, 2019 | Brandon Pierce, PhD, University of Chicago
Recent CEHS member research highlighted in publications
Associations of prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate biomarkers with respiratory and allergic diseases among children aged 6 and 7 years
Buckley JP, Quiros-Alcala L, Teitelbaum SL, Calafat AM, Wolff MS, and Engel SM. Environment international. 2018;115:79-88. PMCID: PMC5970077
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BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate exposures may alter immune or inflammatory responses leading to respiratoryand allergic disease.
OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations of prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate biomarkers with respiratory and allergic outcomes among children in the Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal bisphenol A and paradichlorobenzene exposures were associated with pediatric respiratory outcomes among boys. Future studies may shed light on biological mechanisms and potential sexually-dimorphic effects of select phenols and phthalates on respiratory disease development.
Roadmap for investigating epigenome deregulation and environmental origins of cancer.
Herceg Z, Ghantous A, Wild CP, Sklias A, Casati L, Duthie SJ, Fry R, Issa JP, Kellermayer R, Koturbash I, Kondo Y, Lepeule J, Lima SCS, Marsit CJ, Rakyan V, Saffery R, Taylor JA, Teschendorff AE, Ushijima T, Vineis P, Walker CL, Waterland RA, Wiemels J, Ambatipudi S, Degli Esposti D, Hernandez-Vargas H. International journal of cancer. 2018;142(5):874-82. PMCID: PMC6027626.
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ABSTRACT: The interaction between the (epi)genetic makeup of an individual and his/her environmental exposure record (exposome) is accepted as a determinant factor for a significant proportion of human malignancies. Recent evidence has highlighted the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating gene–environment interactions and translating exposures into tumorigenesis. There is also growing evidence that epigenetic changes may be risk factor-specific (“fingerprints”) that should prove instrumental in the discovery of new biomarkers in cancer. Here, we review the state of the science of epigenetics associated with environmental stimuli and cancer risk, highlighting key developments in the field. Critical knowledge gaps and research needs are discussed and advances in epigenomics that may help in understanding the functional relevance of epigenetic alterations. Key elements required for causality inferences linking epigenetic changes to exposure and cancer are discussed and how these alterations can be incorporated in carcinogen evaluation and in understanding mechanisms underlying epigenome deregulation by the environment.
Radiolabeling an Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Using Technetium Carbon Ultrafine Particles.
Holbrook LT, Zeman KL, Burke A, Jaspers I, Bennett WD.
Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery. Epub 2018.
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Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are widely used, but their health effects are not well known. ECIG exposure is difficult to quantify, and a direct measurement of deposition would be beneficial to in vivo and in vitro toxicity studies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effective radiolabeling of an ECIG.
Conclusion: A TCU radiolabel was generated and shown to associate with the mass of an aerosol produced by a typical commercially available ECIG. Thus, the radioactivity of the deposited aerosol may be used to determine ECIG aerosol deposition for the future in vivo and in vitro dosimetry studies of the third- and fourth-generation ECIGs.
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